Simple Solar Water Distiller
This is the simplest distiller and also one that is the least effective. But it is better than nothing.
To make this distiller work you will need a few things. Water, a weight such as a rock or a bit of dirt, a cup of some sort, a piece of hopefully clear plastic and a container for your dirty water. The container could be just a depression in the ground that holds water. Last, but not least, sunshine.
To assemble your solar distiller you will need a sunny area. The less shade the better. In the sun you place or make your water container. Fill the container/depression in the ground with water. Now in the center of the container that holds the water to be purified you set your cup. Next forming as airtight a seal as possible you cover the container with the plastic.
Now place the rock or a bit of dirt etc on the top of the plastic right in the middle above your cup. This will push the plastic down towards the cup but you do not want it to touch the cup. That is it! Now you wait.
What happens is the sunlight slowly evaporates the water since it has no where to go it will condense on the underside of the plastic. The condensation will run down the plastic and drip into your cup. Bingo fresh pure drinking water.
Tips on how to improve the process!
1. You need the inside of the distiller to be hotter than outside. This is needed so that the condensation will form. So cool the topside of the plastic or heat the air inside the plastic.
2. Get off the ground. Putting the dirty water in a container not buried in the ground makes it easier to heating it up easier. The ground will try to maintain a more stable temperature and that isn't what you want.
3. Airtight. Having the dirty water sealed in prevents any water vapor from escaping through cracks.